Poland Demographics

Population of Poland (2023)

View live population, charts & trends: Population of Poland

Poland Population
Yearly Change
+ 2.93%
Global Share
Global Rank

Median Age

The median age in Poland is 40.0 years (2023).

Fertility in Poland

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

pregnant_woman Total Fertiliy Rate (TFR)
(Live Births per Woman, 2023)

Life Expectancy in Poland

See also: Countries in the world ranked by Life Expectancy

Both Sexes
78.6 years
(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)
82.3 years
(life expectancy at birth, females)
74.9 years
(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Poland

Infant Mortality
(infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
Deaths under age 5
(per 1,000 live births)

Poland Urban Population

Currently, 55.2 % of the population of Poland is urban (22,658,118 people in 2023)

Population Density

The 2023 population density in Poland is 134 people per Km2 (347 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 306,230 Km2 (118,236 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Poland

1 Warsaw 1,702,139
2 Lodz 768,755
3 Krakow 755,050
4 Wroclaw 634,893
5 Poznan 570,352
6 Gdansk 461,865
7 Szczecin 407,811
8 Bydgoszcz 366,452
9 Lublin 360,044
10 Katowice 317,316
11 Bialystok 291,855
12 Gdynia 253,730
13 Czestochowa 248,125
14 Sosnowiec 227,295
15 Radom 226,794
16 Mokotow 212,670
17 Torun 208,717
18 Kielce 208,598

See also



Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called "Age-Sex Pyramid") is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive - pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population. Example: Nigera Population Pyramid
  • Constrictive - pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one). Example: United States
  • Stationary - with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as "working age" may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the "dependent" population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.