Spain Demographics

Population of Spain (2023)

View live population, charts & trends: Population of Spain

Spain Population
Yearly Change
Global Share
Global Rank

Median Age

The median age in Spain is 44.8 years (2023).

Fertility in Spain

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

pregnant_woman Total Fertiliy Rate (TFR)
(Live Births per Woman, 2023)

Life Expectancy in Spain

See also: Countries in the world ranked by Life Expectancy

Both Sexes
84.1 years
(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)
86.7 years
(life expectancy at birth, females)
81.4 years
(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Spain

Infant Mortality
(infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
Deaths under age 5
(per 1,000 live births)

Spain Urban Population

Currently, 79.6 % of the population of Spain is urban (37,829,585 people in 2023)

Population Density

The 2023 population density in Spain is 95 people per Km2 (247 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 498,800 Km2 (192,588 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Spain

1 Madrid 3,255,944
2 Barcelona 1,621,537
3 Valencia 814,208
4 Sevilla 703,206
5 Zaragoza 674,317
6 Malaga 568,305
7 Murcia 436,870
8 Palma 401,270
9 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 381,847
10 Bilbao 354,860
11 Alicante 334,757
12 Cordoba 328,428
13 Valladolid 317,864
14 Vigo 297,332
15 Gijon 277,554
16 Eixample 266,477
17 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat 257,038
18 Latina 256,644
19 Carabanchel 253,678
20 A Coruna 246,056
21 Puente de Vallecas 244,151
22 Sant Marti 235,719
23 Gasteiz / Vitoria 235,661
24 Granada 234,325
25 Elche 230,112
26 Ciudad Lineal 228,171
27 Oviedo 224,005
28 Santa Cruz de Tenerife 222,417
29 Fuencarral-El Pardo 220,085
30 Badalona 219,547

See also



Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called "Age-Sex Pyramid") is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive - pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population. Example: Nigera Population Pyramid
  • Constrictive - pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one). Example: United States
  • Stationary - with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as "working age" may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the "dependent" population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.